Debugging is the process of finding and resolving of defects that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.
The process of initially setting up or later updating a live website. There are lots of components (server configuration, code, database, files, permissions) and steps involved so that such a deployment task can take a while and needs to be executed very carefully to make sure it doesn't break anything. Deployment can be done manually - which is not recommended - or automatically. With automation it is very easy to also include additional tasks like testing and pre-processing into the task and the expected result is always going to be the same. Nothing gets missing and it will only always happen, if all conditions (tests, coding standards, etc.) are met.
Short for Domain Name System. It's like an address book for servers on the internet. Each of those servers has an IP address (or many IP addresses) and optionally in addition one or many domain names. For each of those domain names the DNS provides the associated IP addresses so that the browser knows from where to get the content of e.g. a website.
The enterprise OpenSource content management system which is available for free at https://www.drupal.org where you can find all the details and also references.
Drupal has a very active community with tens of thousands of developers all around the world and they also have a huge focus on standard compliance and on security.
DrupalConsole is a CLI tool for Drupal 8 an later. It's used by developers and administrators to initially setup, develop and maintain Drupal projects.
See also: Drush